The Dynamics of Organizational Behavior
Sourav Kumar Chatterjee
Manager, Rotary Equipment
HPCL Oil Refinery Plant, Mumbai
This article first appeared in our affiliate publication, Hydrocarbon Asia. Mr. Chattterjee has written for Pump Magazine previously, publishing a Field Case Study of a pump failure and route cause analysis.
Starting from birth, a human passes through various situations in life and makes efforts to sustain a stress free survival by reacting to situations in perceived best possible way. The capacity to evaluate a situation and to find out right way to handle it, varies from person to person depending upon their potential and capability. This activity, in general, is termed as “Behavior”.
This is an effort to consolidate mainly human behavioral part during the life cycle, highlighting the various positive and negative aspects; it’s origins, concept of development and useful application of human resources.
Unlike a machine, human is governed by self-controlled system of wide range, where a vast database back up exists and continuously gets updated. The major difference is human system can expand itself simultaneously in many areas, which a machine cannot.
The complexity of human nature is a mysterious aspect and matter of research. HRD experts; philosophers are still not able to prepare a formalized overview of human behavior under different situations. But it is essential to understand the behavioral trend and psychological aspects of employees to extract best services from them. A supervisor or manager must possess sufficient ability to understand and analyze the behavioral features of employees, to exercise effective control
The main features of a human
! H-Honor- Key feature for Interpersonal relation & trust
! U-Understanding- Foundation for Team work
! M-Morality- Sets Value added objectives
! A-Aspiration- Drive for Development& prosperity
! N-Nobility-Imparts Positive & assertive attitude
Any activity of human system is an output of combined action of body and mind. The emotional aspects like, love, zeal, anger, greed, luster, joy, sorrow etc. have full influence on control of mind.
Emotion is one of the important phenomena in human control system. The behavior of human is mainly influenced by this element in all sectors of human life cycle.
“Emotion is attachment / reaction of human to any person/event or any situation, which reveals the behavioral configuration of individual”. This is also major area for gauging the potential of human beings.
Capability of individual is directly related to the emotional configuration in it’s own system. Motivation actually makes the emotional system active to generate zeal to accomplish any task. Uncontrolled emotion is damaging for all sectors of human life and results in total failure.
Controlled emotion leads to construction
Uncontrolled emotion ends in destruction
“Control” is synchronized co-ordination between the system, situation and action.
The technique of optimum utilization of system tools to handle any situation in proper platform, so that desired goal is achieved as end product, is silent feature of control.
It is applicable for human system also,
A human system emerges with different actions, different postures and different attitudes under the influence of emotions which many cases are completely unpredictable. Some of these have benefactor effects to drive a human system towards development, and some have adverse influences hence must be placed under control. A Human System tends to loose control when human body and mind fail to get synchronized with any situation. The excessive influence of any of these emotional elements is damaging and ends with lose of control. To progress, the primary necessity is flexibility. This nature helps to accept the event variation and deviated conditions. Unless and until one accepts the problem or does not get into it, the person cannot come out with solutions to it.
It is obvious that there are different best ways of accomplishing same task in different situations. The adoption of most efficient method for doing a job in a particular environment is one of the main features of progression. Mental block, which refrains any body to accept change, is principal enemy of progression. Education and work culture must be imparted to the persons in such manner, so that they are capable of mould their views and activities in line with variable market condition, technological improvement and working method up gradation.
“Mind” is hypothetical interface between central control system and active organs of a human. It is debatable whether there exists any physical location of mind in a human system, but from the life style and behavior, the mental structure of human could be guessed. Every action a human perform or any information a human transact, mind is principal coordinator for all.
Human is a complex machine. It has been designed and formed with a combination of multi-function systems integrated & related with each other through a centralized control system called “brain”.
“Human is a social animal”. The main differences between human and animal are, capacity to think, logical action, trust & co-operation on each other. Any deviated action from this are often termed as 'inhumane or act of beast’.
“Design is engineered, Technology is applied”
It is first and foremost requirement to know the design features, the operational capabilities and limitations of any system to extract best output from it. So applicable for human system too. While on design features no control can be exercised, the useful application of human system plays major role in achieving an ideal, harmonic social status.
The technique, which deals with the effective application of human resources, is called “Human technology”. All activities of developments in the fields, starting from science, industry, academy, politics, agriculture, sports etc., are undertaken for the greater benefit of society in turn for benefit of human beings. Many cases, these processes are emerged to be unsuccessful because of improper execution, wrong judgment, misleading communication, lack of vision to work for greater interest. It is to be noted “The process, which causes harm to society or creates agony for mankind, cannot produce benefit for it at the end”.
These are all the consequence of deficiency in human resource development and creation of motivated working atmosphere. It is basic need to have a strong foundation and effective support to ensure the rigidity of any structure and capacity bear all types of load safely. It is true for organizational structure. While management provides the strategic structure, the base line crews forms the foundation or support to it.
Apparently, any person while walks in working place for the first time, it possess full intention to learn and work, so that it’s ability is established followed by further progression. No body wants to rise or earn without rendering service for the same.
This concept is true for every human being. The overall assessment on review of the effective utilization of crews in any process plant industry, reveals, that the average service level (qualilative & quantitative) received from the crews is of following configuration.
B) Fair- 20%
C) Poor- 30%
Now it is matter of investigation how people in same working atmosphere, getting same remuneration, performing similar nature of work act in different tune.
The crew under category ‘A’ is self-motivated people. They are professional minded and believe they have to render their best service at all circumstances, so long they are remunerated. This kind of people love to work and a mere verbal appreciation from the authority makes them to feel happy. They work with consistent zeal and enthusiasm through out the service life and irrespective of situation. These are people who contribute the most to keep the profile of organization very high in competitive business atmosphere. These people are creative and often come out with unique techniques to solve specific problems. This is because when they work they apply both physical effort and mind to produce qualitative and quantitative excellence. Moreover, human under this category are capable of accomplish the task during adverse situation also. How do the people develop this quality?
To analyze this, a complete biographical study on such kind of person is required to be conducted encompassing the following areas:
Culture and association
Educational Back ground
Standard of living
Family culture, genetics and socialization during adolescences play a major role to build up mental structure of any human. This mental structure controls the behavioral aspects of any individual. On this, the education and training provide guidelines to under stand the development in the relevant areas and react to the situation correctly. In other words, it provides the capacity to expand the thinking process and removes mental blocks, developing a flexible system. This flexibility is gateway to progression.
Standard of leaving and medical history also important, as effective activities can be carried out, only when human system is physically fit and free from any irrelevant pressure from other area. It is a fact that human displays best performance under pressures, but that should be relevant and unidirectional and must be generated by humans own system. The technique of making human to act on self-generated pressure is called “Motivation”
“Motivation is ignition to capability system, which has potential to earn huge benefit with almost no cost incur”.
Present the assignment as prize not as punishment
No negative criticism
No comparison of capabilities
Immediate appreciation on good achievement
Sharing of responsibilities
Trust level build up by effective communication
Project a positive conclusion
The data obtained from such study must be analyzed to form an ideal database system, which may be useful for selection process of crews. The persons under category ‘B’ have intention to work but don't like to pull on unless and until there is a constant supervisory vigil. This kind of crews is not consistent in performance and only performs in fair situation. In case they face any hindrance during the process they prefer to hold till some body else removes the obstacle. They become happy in small-scale success and scared of taking in challenging job. Following are the few characteristics of such category of people.
Inadequate interest to learn
Don’t posses sound job knowledge
Reluctance to adopt modernization
Prefers to work within known working environment
Makes direction less efforts
Get satisfied with small-scale success.
Seeks frequent supervisory guidance
Do not apply mind for analysis
Can’t take decision individually
Can’t work collectively
Places personal benefit above team benefit
Does not communicate appropriately
This kind of crew are generated due to improper assessment of potential during selection. The assessment of capacity to undertake the job load, tenacity to accomplish the assigned task to be done carefully to select person of required potential.
Unjustified deployment of crew:
Deployment should be done judiciously as per the educational background, skill and job knowledge of individuals. Un-scientific and ambiguous working atmosphere and system can lead to problems. A System fails when the people fails to trust and honor the system guide lines.
It is most important for a progressive organization to have proper transparent system of working, viewing clear cut guidelines on responsibilities, standard to be maintained, role of each position, and boundary limitations of each position in the hierarchy. This must be adhered to, irrespective of position in the organization hierarchy. Prior to deployment, crewmembers must be well conversant with the scope of assignment and standard of execution expected by the organization. They must be equipped with proper training, tools, and guidelines to accomplish the job successfully. It is the principal duty of supervisor to develop and maintain an impartial and transparent working atmosphere which must be safe and of job and knowledge oriented.
“Each employee should realize they are all member of big family and rendering service to organization not to any individual in the hierarchy.”
Discriminating treatment is extremely harmful and will destroy the organization in long run. There must be transparent system and standard of gauging the performance of the employees which should have full proof system of eliminating the perception of any individual while carrying out the assessment. The most appropriate and logical process of performance assessment is the assessment by the customer to whom service is rendered.
In present market scenario which is mainly customer satisfaction based, this assessment would be most appropriate and impartial. There are two types of customer. One is external customers or consumers of final product and internal customers, who render services to production chain from raw material to finish product for marketing within the organization. People should be aware of the reward for good work and penal action for misconduct, which is assessed by an impartial and transparent system.
The working area must be comfortable feasibly and safe, so that maximum concentration can be put to the job.
There are physiological and situation based force elements act on human while working, which are of following nature.
Lagging or negative elements
1) Pessimistic attitude
2) Personal problem oriented worries
3) Unaware of scope
4) Inadequate skill
5) Frequent supervision
6) Unsafe work place
7) Ergonomically problems
8) Lack of physical fitness
Leading or positive elements
1) Optimistic approach
2) Full concentration (Free from irrelevant pressure)
3) Well conversant with scope and procedure
4) Right skill
6) Safe working environment
7) Use of ergonomically designed tools and devices.
8) Perfect fitness
A firm and scientifically evaluated policy should be formed after detail study on business atmosphere, resources available, and requirement of craft skill, to reduce negative forces and strengthen positive forces.
Change of attitude from negative to positive can be done by creating motivated working atmosphere. The following are the main features.
Project assignment as a reward
Extend for sharing responsibility and teamwork
Project positive conclusion
Don’t project negative effects on failure
Don’t criticize or compare the capabilities of individuals
Provide due guidance
Appreciate the good work
Build trust level by transparent communication
The personal problem related worries which refrain one to put full concentration to work, can be reduced to a great extent by formation and implementation of a practical study oriented welfare scheme and sympathetic counseling. This also helps an organization to earn loyalty of gratified employees who would render the best services to keep up the reputation.
A good documentation and communication system must be developed so that the employees become well conversant with the scope of responsibilities and approved procedure to accomplish it. Many organizations have well established communication system but most of it doesn’t have system of evaluating the effectiveness time to time, which is a most important for further progression.
The evaluation of employees capabilities, relevant skill, potential to develop or to learn, are the most important features of human technology. This evaluation helps to engage the crew members in right track, indicates the nature of training to be imparted and guides to appropriate deployment. Preliminary assessment can be done at the time of selection, on the basis of academic track record, nature of experience and attitude during personal interview. Subsequent to this they must be subjected to model task and the way of handling the situation is to be monitored closely. The data obtained during this exercise can be subjected to comparative analysis against standard data of proven record, to carry out evaluation. Training is a most important aspect once the above exercise is completed.
The incumbents must be aware of the general system, Standing orders of the organization, the safety rules and procedures; the plant lay out, the objectives of organization and their individual role in the chain system. Periodic refresher training program on the relevant subject with updated information on modern techniques are also very much necessary for further development.
There must be system of evaluating the aspects related to safety of human before commencement of any job. In fact apart from general safety policies and guidelines the each assignment must evaluated from safety angle followed by appropriate precautions. Periodic evaluation of safety system and Risk based analysis and imparting training to employees of all level are also important activities to avoid any safety hazard. Over and above the awareness level of employees must examined periodically by conducting mock drill and awareness quiz etc.
An agronomic study by competent authority and employees awareness towards adopting the recommendations are the solutions to this problem In this context the first line crew and middle management levels are the key role players for successful implementation. Fitness is another important area, which is of great importance to working ability. The general fitness of human may not be effective fitness for carrying out job in a running process plant. Here physical fitness must harmonically reinforce with mental fitness to have control over the entire situation, i.e. application of labor, knowledge, sense of time management safety awareness simultaneously. Periodic medical check up and test with checklists prepared from industrial application point of view can help to develop this quality.
The above features are helpful to reduce the % of “B” category crew and increase the “A” category people provided the negative elements are identified and proper remedial measures are taken in time.
Above all, periodic audits on all sectors / systems of an organization must be carried out by competent persons to evaluate the effectiveness and to identify the lagging elements or short comings in light of dynamic modernization, followed by adoption of remedial measure for improvement.
The people under category “C” who tries to evade the work and seldom work displaying poor workmanship under close compulsive supervision, are really the potential threat to a good, impartial working environment. These people are reluctant to work as either they don’t posses aptitude for assigned job or they always feel dejected with allegation of improper evaluation of their self perceived great potential. These persons are product of lenient and casual assessment during recruitment and absence of scientific method of gauging potentiality. Further more, this category can be emerged if there is any discriminating working environment, which creates a privileged class, who assume the position but not the responsibility, as they are not competent to do so. This system is highly damaging for progression of any professionally managed organization.
Presence of this category is highly de-motivating and sometimes may convert some “A” catagory employee to “B” category leading to reduction of effective work availability.
The infiltration of this category must be sealed by appropriate system and close monitoring on recruitment with highest priority.
The summarized version of the above tale is “ The atmosphere in which a human grows up and the education it receives are the foundation of the human system, whereas an effective management policies when logically engaged can receive best services from it.” The “ABCD” of management" Problems are born to get solved, Only the right approach to under stand it and right vision to get the solution, are the basic requirement.
Good management practice to handle problem:
A-Analysis to Find out
Bad management practice to handle problem:
If could not
If could not
C- Call for discussion
Few key features and concept to develop Good management practice
Corporate interest is above all interest.
Safety of human is first thing to achieve
Impossible is a word found in dictionary of fools
Absence of knowledge” is not a crime “pretension” is unpardonable offence.
Reward the best with more responsibility and remuneration
Failure is a process of learning if followed by proper analysis
Every action must have a logical base of corporate interest
Objective should be “growth” not “business” which is low profile affair.
“Intelligence” is capacity to handle any situation favorably and amicably.
“Achievement” is end product of sincere service in right direction.
“Honesty” is the best policy.
“Guidance” means, alignment of action in right direction, not “spoon feeding”
Self-change is primary requirement to bring change in situation
Mistake can happen once or twice, repetition of mistake is “negligence”
Ignorance is source of pessimism
An illustration can be furnished on the importance of organizational behavior considering two different phases of few years apart for an important section of reputed organization.
Here follows a general concept encompassing the organizational behavior, system and practices and key psychological aspects which are the based on factual information obtained during above mentioned period of transition between two phases.
Subject section consists of hundred technicians’ eight officers, which caters service to operation department, fire and safety department etc. and works on general shift (8 AM to 4.30 PM). Emergency jobs are carried out on overtime basis. The initial phase review displays following disorders.
Deteriorated interpersonal relationship
Undisciplined attitude of personnel
Lack of amicable interaction between workmen and officers
Mistrust and sense of rivalry resulting futile team work
Absence of appreciation for good work
Unscientific working environment and ignorance to creative and developmental moves.
Illogical and faulty systems and practices.
Frequent IR problems and prolong heated arguments
The impacts of above said Disorders
High % equipment breakdown (More than 7% at any point of time)
Poor quality of work leading to repetition. (MTBF < 20 Months)
Loss of effective man-hours( 42% loss month wise)
High % of over time (25% of effective man-hour)
Excessive stress on officers due to extended hours stay almost all the days
“Problems are born with solutions, formalized approach guided by right track vision is gate way to it”
The analysis of above-mentioned problems directs towards three basic areas of concern.
Working system & practices
First of all, attention was paid to improve interpersonal relationship. This is because, mutual trust and spontaneous cooperation is the foundation of teamwork, which has immense importance in an aspirating organization.
The attitudes and mode of action of supervisors analyzed for possible flaws, like partiality, passing biased comment, ignorance to workmen’s genuine difficulties, whimsical decisions, improper evolution of workmen’s performance etc. which could antagonize the employees.
Officers were advised to act logically and in line with preset transparent guidelines, placing the corporations interest above all interest so that every decision or action could be substantiated on basis of objectives or benefits of the organization. Apart from this, systems of periodic joint meetings for discussions on safety related issues, hindrance in working environment, brainstorming sessions for creative and developmental ideas, were also introduced. In these forums workmen’s are allowed to express their opinions and ideas, which are either accepted for implementation or rejected with due justification through amicable debate. Here are few examples of betterment, which had input from employees. The joint efforts and healthy interaction gradually built up a cohesive bonding between the personnel at different levels of hierarchy and developed relational harmony and mutual trust.
Supervisors were advised to maintain a highest level of integrity, impartiality, and transparency in day-to-day activities, giving up superiority complex, which could be provocation for disintegration of interpersonal relationship. It was observed that 20% workmen were instigative towards creation of disorder in the section to which others were compelled to provide a support unwillingly.
This notion was erased by repeated counseling and adopting a logical and unbiased view towards the mistake committed by personnel, who gradually developed confidence on supervisors as their trusted caretaker in all respect. Simultaneously they were also made to understand that, repeated mistake is negligence and calls for strict action. The supremacy of arrogant troublemakers was leveled down by taking stringent actions like wage cut; show cause, invoking standing disciplinary rules of organization. This unprecedented action against the so-called powerful troublemakers, had revived the faith of 80% people on the system, and became matter of great motivation.
All these measures had helped workmen to realize their important role in achieving success as a team under careful guidance of supervisors, which developed positive working atmosphere.
Discipline is backbone of any system. It is obvious that unruly and haphazard activities cannot yield quality result. Hence next step adopted was abolishment of impractical practices, unjustified demands, unruly attitude and deliberate poor performance.
First of all the reporting system at section was made strict. The crews who used to report after the cutoff time or habitual latecomers were made to forgo their leave for late period. In between also supervisors had started surprise check for any possible unauthorized absence of workmen from work place followed by disciplinary measures like warning, show cause etc. were also enforced. Simultaneously the concept towards adoption of practices to ensure job quality, safety and wastage minimization was made mandatory features of each function without exception.
The employees who displayed a disciplined behavior were praised in open forum and set as precedent for others. The illogical practices which were earlier had set in under the pressure of agitations, were discontinued, as those practices were camouflaged form of indiscipline. This time almost every alternate day disturbances, like go slow, refusal of handling emergency job during off-shift hours, picking up argument on petty issues used to break out and same were tackled by officers in amicable way without allowing it to propagate further.
There was a practice to engage contract personnel for certain emergency jobs, which actually were part of regular employee’s assignment, envisaging deliberate delay might be committed by workmen for additional over time. This short cut method, though sometimes were effective to make equipment available in time for production, but used to have an adverse effect on interpersonal relationship and discipline of the section. The workmen used to feel dejected and many times they had expressed their anguish in the form of un-parliamentary comments and allegation of management’s vested interest to benefit the contractor. Obviously management stuffs would not pocket such insulting and baseless comments and used to retaliate through strong protest leading to heated argument and chaotic situation.
To resolve this problem, the issue was discussed at length with senior workmen of section excluding their regular leaders. During discussion it was highlighted that the measure of engaging contractor for emergency job used to be adopted due to unethical and irresponsible attitude of certain workmen to earn unauthorized overtime ignoring plant emergency. It was emphasized, that it would be a matter of great pleasure and glory for the section if all the emergency jobs were carried out in time by section employees only. The workmen had understood the flaw and committed not to resort to any unjustified act which would bring the sections flag down. With due honor to this, the practice of engaging contract service was discontinued and since then, workmen also have started discharging a spirited service in handling plant emergencies with substantial responsibilities, which has been fetching a reputation and logical overtime income for them. This also has yielded following benefits for organization
The elimination of exorbitant additional payment to contractor, who used to levy higher charges due to urgent mobilization of manpower and working round the clock basis, apart from unavoidable payment of salary to regular employees who were designated for such job and used to be redundant.
Regular employees are skilled and have become conversant with the equipment/system due to repeated years long activities in same field. Whereas contractor personnel were inexperienced and didn’t possess adequate skill to handle the jobs of specialized field, failing to meet high quality of job, which many times became cause of recurring breakdown. By discontinuing the contractor service in specialized areas, the breakdown rate had come down remarkably.
The activities of less experienced contract personnel who were also ignorant towards safety regulations, was always a potential risk for possible safety hazard. Hence debarment of contractor has reduced such risk to great extend.
The workmen, who are the principal basic strength of any organization, became motivated and gratified by the decision to put off contractor’s interference in their area. This made them to discharge more sincere and quality service improving overall performance of the section.
During various stages of interaction, it was observed that some employees are having better capacity to accept the logical proceedings and react positively to arrive in amicable solutions. Tactically during any across the table interaction, such persons to be chosen for addressing the conversation. When these people starts expressing their view in terms of affirmative body language, soon after many of the lot joins them, leading to a successful event. While dealing with management activities, a logical and unbiased view to be taken towards any issue whether technical or administrative, and arbitrary conclusions must not be drawn without going through a detail root cause analysis.
Disciplinary measures must be taken to the extent it is required in line with standing order of organization and over action must be avoided as this may antagonize the employee making them to preserve an intention of taking revenge at suitable opportunity.
Another most important aspect for maintaining behavioral harmony in organization is; refrain from uttering dubious commitment or backing out from any agreed resolution. Problem or any disorder must be dealt with in time logical approach to arrive at feasible solution of collective benefit inline with organization’s objective and never be allowed to precipitate. The attitude of delay, overlook, misinterpretation towards any problem, destroy the personnel’s faith on the system and system enforcing authorities.
The communication in this regard must be to the point and the proposals or solutions, which are justified and developmental in nature, must be implemented with due feasibility study. Simultaneously unjustified demands or proposals, which are not of collective interest and contrary to the policy, must not be entertained and liable for immediate discard without hanging it up.
Working system and practices
This is an area, which enables an organization to optimize its manpower and make the employees to discharge their best service. In subject case it was observed that, there did exist several flaws or illogical practices in the way of functioning, which had been getting through un-scrutinized and unchallenged years together, and which were the hindrances to team spirit and progressive activities. By an evolution study the areas that required to be addressed for improvement were identified which are as follows.
Formal guidelines for designated technical activities.
Leniency towards appraising employee for promotion.
Refresher training and expose to modern technological concepts.
Existence of undue privilege for some category of employee.
Forceful interference of some employees in restricted management activities.
Requirement of tools/tackles and other accessories
Proper coordination system with other sections
First of all, general guide lines for handling day to day activities was formed and displayed in working area followed by continuous monitoring and counseling by line supervisors for adherence. This has made the provision of asking for employee’s accountability that cannot sail unquestioned for rendering poor service level, on the pretext of supervision lapses, which were a regular feature earlier.
The system of general evolution of employee’s performance irrespective of capacity, sincerity, discipline and overall performance level was discontinued and it was made to understand that only employees, who fulfils expected performance criteria, would be recommended for promotion. This rectification didn’t come easily, as employees had developed a concept that it is their legislative right to have promotion without getting evaluated as per guideline of standing procedure. Hence through series of discussion, counseling and day-to-day performance tracking with due notification to concerned employees, this system was made streamlined.
Periodic in house and on the job training programs were scheduled and conducted for employees, incorporating the aspects of technological development, organizational behavior, safety etc with internal and external experienced personalities from relevant fields as faculty members. More over employees were sent for effective training programs conducted at outside locations also, which opened the scope for information sharing with people from other industries. This has helped a lot to break the mental blocks of people towards acceptance of any progressive change.
The privileges like self-chosen assignment, work evasion on the pretext of union activities etc. were terminated and the formal procedure of release for union activities was revived back to effect.
The union leader used to claim and enjoy exemption from designated work citing some irrelevant old document that had never been scrutinized earlier. This time it was declared null and void and a fresh clarification in this regard was sought from administration department. After detail scrutiny and discussion at various management levels, the administration department issued circular in writing stating, “As an employee of particular craft union leader is not exempted from discharging its designated service for which salary is paid, only on intimation from administration department the person may be released for specified period to attend meeting.”
This was conveyed to leader publicly and principally the leader had to agree and accept job like common employees. This incident became a moral boost up for all sincere employees and set back for mischievous people, who started preferring to earn their salary by hard work. The habit of unauthorized dictation of terms on certain issues by self-declared leaders, were strictly handled by verbal and written warning followed by effective counseling. It was made crystal clear to them that any suggestion was always welcome but the acceptance or rejection of it was entirely under the discretion of management. Any forceful attempt or provocation to bring pressure on supervisors was insubordination and liable for disciplinary action.
Every time the scavenging efforts had faced severe resistance and localized agitations but due to sincere and tactical way of handling, the situation never went out of control and employees were compelled to give up their unjustified demand.
A thorough study was conducted to identify the tools and tackles requirement to perform the relevant jobs and was compared it with standard tools list required for such establishment, which was formed considering manuals of equipment manufacturers of prevailing equipments. The shortcomings were noted and discussed with concerned workmen to finalize the list of tools to be procured. The tools were procured and issued to employees with due to record to have accountability and future tracking. The forums for periodic discussion on safety aspects and developmental aspects were also formed in conjunction with representatives from management and non-management employees which have become a common platform hence foundation of teamwork and coordination.
The coordination system was strengthened by emphasizing empowerment at first line of management, where intersection interaction is essential to have a synchronized functioning of organization. It was decided only decisions regarding tactical and strategic changes would be referred to higher management.
With all above changes gradually the situations of the section in relation to job quality, cost control, equipment availability, effective manpower utilization etc. started to improve and the assessment of a phase after few years reveals following statistics.
Breakdown Rate- 1.5% to 2% of total equipment at any point of time
Mean time between failures of equipments > 60 months
Loss of effective man-hour reduced to 25% (In spite of addition of three units having another 300 numbers of equipment)
% Overtime reduced to 4%
Since last Two years there has been no IR problem at section level
No overstay by supervisors for supervision of emergency jobs as concerned technician takes the responsibility of hand over it for operation after job completion.
Progression of employees have taken place in following manner
A Number of higher grades were approved enabling promotions of deserving candidates, keeping total manpower same.
Number senior technician having outstanding achievement have been promoted to management category.
Substantial hike in remuneration for all grades